Programming, Scala

Mockito and Scala

Scala is a language that really cares about types and mocking is the art of passing one type off as another so it is not that surprising that the two don’t get along famously. It is also a bit off probably that we are using Java mocking frameworks with Scala code which means you sometimes need to know too much about how Scala creates its bytecode.

Here are two recent problems: the “ongoing stubbing” issue and optional parameters with defaults (which can generally be problematic anyway as they change the conventions of Scala function calling).

Ongoing stubbing is an error that appears when you want to mock untyped (i.e. Java 1.4) code. You can recognise it by the hateful “?” characters that appear in the error messages. Our example was wanting to mock the request parameters of Servlet 2.4. Now we all know that the request parameters (like everything else in a HTTP request) are Strings. But in Servlet 2.4 they are “?” or untyped. Servlet 2.5 is typed and the first thing I would say about an ongoing stubbing issue is to see if there is Java 1.5 compatible version of whatever it is you are trying to mock. If it is your own code, FFS, add generics now!

If it is a library that you have no control over (like Servlet) then I have some bad news, I don’t know of any way to get around this issue, Scala knows that the underlying code is unknown so even if you specify Strings in your mock code it won’t let it compile and if you don’t specify a type your code still won’t compile. In the end I created a Stub sub-class of HttpServletRequest that returned String types (which is exactly what happens at runtime, thank you very much Scala compiler).

Okay so optional parameters in mocked code? So I love named parameters and default values because I think they are probably 100% (no, perhaps 175%) better at communicating a valid operating state for the code than dependency injection. However when you want to mock and set an expectation on a Scala function that uses a default value you will often get an error message saying that the mock was not called or was not called with the correct parameters.

This is because when the Scala code is compiled you are effectively calling a chain of methods and your mock needs to set matchers for every possible argument not the ones that your Scala code is actually calling. The simplest solution is to use the any() matcher on any default argument you will not be explicitly setting. Remember that this means the verification must consist entirely of matchers, e.g. eq() and so on.

What to do when you want to verify that a default parameter was called with an explicit value? I think you do it based on the order of the parameters in the Scala declaration but I haven’t done it myself and I’m waiting for that requirement to become a necessary thing for me to know.

Standard

2 thoughts on “Mockito and Scala

  1. Gus says:

    Can you provide a code example? I’ve had similar problems with Wicket, though sometimes you can just declare it as Param[_] or the like.

    • I’m not sure if you mean the problem or the solution? If you mean the problem then it was request.getParameterMap that proved to be the real hard nut. The fake HttpServlet Request was very simple along the lines of.

      abstract class FakeHttpRequest extends HttpServletRequest { override def getParameterMap: Map[String, String] }

      Then you just mock FakeHttpRequest.

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